According to the Food and Agriculture Company of the US U.N.FAO, there will be about 31,773,000 ha hectares or 48.3 of forests in Myanmar. Typically 372,250 ha or 0.95% of forest have already been lost annually between 1990 and 2010. The organization states that within the period of 20 years (1990-2010), around 7,445,000 ha or 19.0% of the full total forest offers been cleared in Myanmar. Myanmar is one of the top ten countries that are occurring highest deforestation rate on earth, and its rank is seven.
The Rangoon-established Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA) alerts that Myanmar testmyprep is meeting a deforestation crisis as a result of healthy disasters (hurricanes, floods, drought and fires), human actions (logging, slash-and-burn agriculture, trimming trees for gasoline, mining operations, dam setting up, clearing terrain for livestock grazing and essential oil extraction) and overpopulation. If deforestation cannot be controlled by government, the effect could be incredibly disastrous testmyprep. It has bad impacts on environmental degradation and immediate biodiversity loss.
Exporting timber and population are the main factors behind deforestation in Myanmar. The Global Witness Non-Governmental Business (NGO) manipulated that Myanmar shipped at least one million cubic meters of timber into China in 2002. Between 2010 and 2011, government exported 864,000 metric a great deal of timber and acquired US$600 million from it. Moreover, based on the UN FAO report that Burma’s rural populations of about 70% or at least 30 million rely on forests for their basic needs in ’09 2009. Government and people do not aware if they cut a lot of trees for their profits; it will impact on ecosystem and happen a lot of normal disaster in Myanmar.
The purpose of this paper is to show causes and effects of deforestation in Myanmar. In particular, the impact of climate changes is very serious trouble in Myanmar because of deforestation. This paper will go over the programs of government to fix these problems ,and it will provide some possible suggestions to safeguard the forests.
The meaning of deforestation is definitely cutting, clearing and eliminating of trees for many reasons such as logging, slashing-and-burning agriculture, clearing land for livestock, building dam. Sometimes, pure disasters can incredibly destruct forests. For example, Cyclone Nargis destroyed a whole lot of trees in Myanmar on 2 and 3 May 2008.
Myanmar is developing region, so the government and people are really be based upon forests. They decrease a whole lot of trees for different reasons, but the main point is for short-term monetary rewards (Putatunda, 2011). Deforestation can be caused not merely human activities, but also natural disasters.
In Myanmar, federal government exports a whole lot of natural resources abroad, but they got additional money by exporting timber. According to the parliamentary Natural Resources and Environment Conservation Committee, Myanmar exports a whole lot of teaks by legal or illegal. The London-founded Environment Investigation Agency claims that Myanmar exported 1.6 million tones of teak per yearly to neighboring countries such as India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia.
The agency claims Myanmar received $5.7 billion by exporting 18 million cubic meters of hardwood log between 2000 and 2010. According to statistics, Myanmar has more than 16.32 million hectares of forest, and the area of teak is 24,300 hectares while the area of hardwood is normally 324,000 hectares. In Myanmar almost 1.98 million cubic meters of hardwood and 283,000 cubic meters of teak are being used in Myanmar per annual. As a result, cutting a lot of trees for exporting is threatening Myanmar forests.
Overpopulation affect on forests because they ruin a whole lot of trees for his or her profit. In Myanmar, the population is increased around one million annually. The population Myanmar is 54,584,650 in 2012 .Regarding to UNFAO, 70 percent of the Myanmar persons reside in rural area, and they rely on forests because of their basic requirements and sustenance and profit. Similar to Indonesia, people who get significantly less than US$ 1 trim trees to get a few profits for short-term (Stolle, 2008).
Deforestation can be due to not only man-made, but also natural disasters.
In Myanmar, forest fire is usually one of the main problems to eliminate forests. Myanmar misplaced up to 10 tons of forest fuel due to forest fire. Therefore, every 30 to 70 a great deal of top forest soil will be destroyed in Myanmar. Myanmar is usually facing natural disasters such as cyclones, landslides, earthquakes, tsunami, fire and drought. They are also legitimate threats to Myanmar’s environment.
Burning trees and clearing forest incredibly affect on environment. A lot of greenhouse gases incorporating carbon dioxide happen to be emitted from deforestation. Hence, the temperature of global is growing, so climate improvements and soil erosion happen in Myanmar.
2.1 Climate Changes
A lot of natural disasters happen to be threatening Myanmar’s forest such as cyclones, earthquakes and floods (Moe, 2009). Cyclone Nargis destroyed trees and livelihood of individuals more than earthquake and floods. Cyclone Nargis was the very best deadliest and most caustic tropical cyclones to ever before strike Myanmar (The New York Time, 2012). The cyclone notably damaged a total of 37 townships. The UN predicts a lot more than 2.4 million persons were influenced by Cyclone. Relating to official numbers, 53,800 were missing, and 84,500 persons were killed. In addition, it destroyed a million acres of rice paddies, trees and killed three-fourths of the livestock with its seawater surges.
2.2 Soil erosion and soil fertility loss
In Myanmar, soil erosion is among the most serious problems, and government can’t be controlled until now, so the agricultural goods of Myanmar are dropping. The fertility of the soil will certainly reduce if the surface soil is certainly eroded, and it could turn agricultural terrain into desert land. To avoid soil erosion, Myanmar should preserve forests and grasslands. If soil erosion cannot be preserved, it will result in flooding. Weather and agricultural experts argue that they get 4 inches of rainfall from the flood areas, but flooding problems by no means happen with this sum of rainfall in the past. Not merely nutrient depletion but also ecological, public and economic problem could be happened as a result of soil erosion.
A lot of healthy disasters are threatening persons in Myanmar. Just about all disasters are caused by deforestation. So, the government are trying to reduce deforestation. They include three plans for that. Firstly, they will totally ban exporting timber abroad in 2014 (William Shoe, 2012). However, it really is difficult to stop unlawful logging and exporting to China. The reason is China’s border is very close with northern part of Myanmar. Many poor indigenous persons are counting on forest for their basic need. Although the federal government will not allow to cut trees, they could do continue, but their strategic is normally a few results on stopping illegal logging and exporting never to only China but also other countries. The second is reforestation. Every June or July, the government purchase to plant trees in the complete country. Moreover, the federal government features dictated its citizen between the age ranges of 11 and 60 must plant five trees per each year in China. The federal government mentions that the consequence of their course is they have been planted at least one billion trees since 1982. Although the government of China’s plan be successful, in Myanmar, their program failed since after planting trees, nobody care about them. In the people’s brain, their responsibility is merely planting trees. The previous strategy is collaboration with UN corporation . It proven The National Commission for Environment Affairs(NCEA) which purpose is normally to support environmentally friendly protection and reduce the environmental degradation. The government expects this collaboration can stop deforestation in Myanmar. The very best solution is giving work to poor people. If they can afford to their basic need, they’ll not destroy the forests.
They won’t care just how many disasters happen and the government announces the guidelines because money is extra important than retaining the environment for them. Furthermore, recycling and reusing items are also the very best solution. For example, industries are utilizing a lot of bamboo to produce paper. If people and college students reuse the recycling paper, they could reduce using bamboo. These solutions may decline deforestation in Myanmar.
In bottom line, Myanmar was covered a lot of forests before, but nowadays, the insurance of forests decreased significanly in Myanmar. Exporting teaks and overpopulation are the main causes to become facing deforestation in Myanmar. Myanmar is poor country, so government budget depend on exporting teaks abroad. Almost 283,000 cubic meters of teak and 1,98 0,000 cubic meters of hardwood are being used for exporting in Myanmar per year. Increasing population is also the main problem. About one million people are incresing per each year. Most of them will be poor, so they count on forests for his or her basic needs. The result of destroying forests is certainly emitting a lot of greenhouse gases. Therefore the temperature is increasing, and it influences on weather and soil of Myanmar. By changing climate, a whole lot of normal disasters are happening in Myanmar such as for example Cyclone Nargis, earthquakes, floods and drought. Cyclone Nargis destroyed a lot of trees and afflicted more than 2.4 million persons, and it was nightmare for folks. Myanmar has no many very good place for agriculture because of deforestation. Federal government tried to resolve deforestation , but it didn’t affect on the issue. Lowering unemployments and recycling things may stop destroying the forests. If the federal government cannot control deforestaionthe, a lot of extreme normal disasters will occur in Myanmar. When there is no enough trees, the temp will be larger and bigger, and the death count of folks will sharply upsurge in hot season. Health problems and economy problems may also happen. It is assume that when there is no trees, animals can not survive. If you have no animals, all people cannot also survive. By maintaining the environment, the world will be gorgeous.